Stefan cel Mare

Bukovina

 

Short History

 

   

 

Photo gallery         Emigration
     

Coat of arms

   

The theme of Bukovina  coat of arms is blue and red longitudinal sections with the head of an “aurochs” (extinct wild ox)  surrounded by three gold star.)

 

 

           
           

 

 

From 1775 to 1918, Bukovina was the eastern-most crown land of the Austrian Empire; now divided between Romania and Ukraine.  As a multi-ethnic province, its name has several spellings:  Bukowina or Buchenland in German, Bukowina in Polish, Bucovina in Romanian, and Bukovena in Ukrainian, all of which mean Land of the Beech Trees

Bukovina, situated on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, was once the heart of the Romanian Principality of Moldavia, with the city of Suceava being made its capital in 1388.  In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Painted Monasteries of Arbora, Dragomirna, Humor, Moldovita, Putna, Sucevita, and Voronet  were constructed under the patronage of Stefan the Great and his son Petru Rares.  With their famous exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania today, and are under the protection of UNESCO. 

Along with the rest of Romania (Transylvania, Walachia and Moldavia), Bukovina fell under the control of the Ottoman Turks.  It remained under Turkish control until it was occupied by the Russians, in 1769, then by the Austrians, in 1774.  After the Treaty of Costantinople in 1775, Bukovina became part of the Austrian Empire and remained so until 1918.   Between 1786 and 1849, Bukovina was included by Austria into the region called Galicia.  When the Austrian Empire was reorganized into the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, Bukovina, like Galicia, remained under the administration of Austria while Transylvania (a neighboring province) was submitted to Hungary.  During the 1st World War, Bukovina became a battlefield between Austrian and Russian troops.  At the end of the war, Austria lost Bukovina which then became part of Romania.

In June 1940, northern Bukovina was occupied by the Soviet Union --- it was included as part of the Ukrainian Republic, the Chernivetska oblast, and has so remained to the present.  Bukovina of the south was part of Romania and included in the province of Moldavia.

In 1775, Bukovina measured 10,000 sq. km. but had only 60,000 inhabitants, and so it became a concern for Austria to populate this region.  With land incentives granted from Austria, there was a large wave of immigrants into Bukovina -- Germans, Gypsies, Austrians, Poles, Bohemians (Czechs), Slovaks, Hungarians, Ukrainians (also referred to as "Ruthenians" at that time), Jews, Armenians and Romanians --- by 1910, the entire region had more than 800,000 inhabitants.  The basic occupations of the inhabitants were farming and the breeding of livestock, and in the mountains, lumbering and operating sawmills.  The region was also rich in minerals and mineral springs, and had abundant fish in the rivers.  Factories and small businesses began to flower everywhere especially among the recent settlers.  But the Austrians had never developed heavy industry in the region.  The sudden overpopulation of the area then began to dissatisfy the native-born people and to create many pressures.  Farmers with large families no longer had enough land to divide among the children, and there was not enough money to send their children to school.  Any movement towards independence from Austria was punished.

The settlers started to be encouraged, even pressured, to emigrate -- either to return to their country of origin or to go elsewhere.  The first wave of German emigration started in 1880.  Some returned to Germany but many others emigrated to America (USA and Canada) or to Brazil.  The second wave of emigration towards America took place during the years preceding and following the 1st World War.  At that time, there were not only settlers who left but also native Bukovinians, too.  With the 2nd World War, Germans left in large numbers.  Emigration of the Bukovina Germans continued into the 1950's and early 1960's.  Today, there is only a small German minority left in Romanian and Ukrainian Bukovina.

 

   
   
   
   
   

Ipotesti
History in images

"...Tell to future generations, that I -- Ioan Hostiuc (1860-1956) -- shook the hand of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria and Bukovina..."

 

Hostiuc Ioan (1874-1956)- Nihaico

 

 

Franz Joseph (1830-1916)




Iremiciuc Domnica Leonte's wife, née Hladiuc


Domnica' sons


 


Dragos, Domnica's grandson

 

 


Domnica, Leonte's Iremiciuc wife,




 

The 1 July 1896 edition of "Desteptarea", a bi-monthly newspaper, featured a front page story about "Domnica, wife of Leonte Iremiciuc" of Ipotesti, the mother of two girls and two boys who attended school in Suceava, and who owned a piece of property there. The headline was "The Trial of Domnica --- Domnica Leads the Fight for the Romanian Language". The story went on to say that "Domnica was sentenced to six weeks in prison". However, she used the trial to argue her case for the Romanian language in the schools and won. In exchange Professor Zierhofer was sentenced to pay court costs.

How did Domnica begin her struggle for the introduction of the Romanian language in the schools of Suceava? In those times (under Austrian occupation) all school children were taught in German. Domnica told the following story to her grandson Dragos. Per Dragos, Domnica's children returned from school one day in tears with their hair all disheveled. They had been punished by Professor Zierhofer because they had learned their lessons wrong. In Domnica's family, they spoke Romanian and not German, and so the children had much difficulty learning their lessons which were all in German. Outraged by the situation, Domnica left for the school and found Zierhofer and pulled some of his hair out of his head (as he had done to Domnica's children). Zierhofer then filed a complaint with the police. The scandal caused by Domnica was a excuse for Romanians in Suceava to express their dissatisfaction --- they wanted the power to have the Romanian language used in their children's schools. The talks lasted until 1906 when the day finally came that Suceava had a school for girls and another school for boys which used the Romanian language.


During the First World War there
were three warrant officers, “plutonieri majori” from Ipotesti


Ioan Iatcu (1886-1944)

War prisonier in Italy, Ioan Iatzku was released in 1919

Stefan Hladiuc (Harcalo)
1888-1960

Ciberiac Vasile (1888-1977)

 


Hostiuc Ioan (1898-1978)  Tzvaico.
Down in the left

 


Trifon Hladiuc, plutonier
(1895-?) son of Stefan (Dascalul)
photo 1938


Danilet Dimitrie
1883-?

 
 

First World War - Soldiers from Ipotesti

 
     

      

     
 

Irimiciuc Gheorghe (1878-1945)

Senciuc Geanda

Crasi Clisi

 

Hostiuc Ion Telecica, Sainiuc Dridro

 
   

 

 

     
 

 
  Crasi Pavel Crasi Mihai Crasi Mihai

 

Irimiciuc Pavel sitting on the left  
             
 


Hreniuc Demitrie, hadro

 

 


Hreniuc Leonte 1896-1981

 

 

 

 


Ipotesti-Austrian vase
 


Austrian vase - detail

   
     
Vasile Crasi, clisi
     

Victims of the war 1914-1918
Missing on the Russian front

- Stefan son of Vasile Horbaniuc & Ana nee Crasii (Brehun), 1892 - 1916-18
- Botusan Constantin (1894-1917) son of  Vasile & Domnica nee Chibici.
- Borza Lupu, b.8 jan 1873, don of Constantin, married to Vaselena nee Guliciuc
- Bucaciuc Alexandru, b.1876, son of Petru & Ana (petresen), married to  Marfta Chibici
- Bucaciuc Nicolai (1 nov 1897-16 sept 1916)  son of  Gheorghe & Domnica
- Chibici Dumitru, b. 1878, son of  Marghioala, married to  Marfta Sainiuc
- Drimba Mihai, b.26 sep 1883, son of  Dumitru & Ileana, married to  Ileana Chibici
- Gavaniuc George, b.1889, son of  Nicolai & Nastasia
- Guliciuc Dumitru, b. in 1891,son of  Pavel & Marfta nee Hladiuc, married to  Victoria Senciuc
- Guliciuc Nicolai (talalaico), b. 13 jun 1884, son of  Ilie &  Domnica nee Sainiuc, married to  Vaselena nee  Chibici
- Haures Nicolai (15 dec 1886-1916-18), son of  Demitrie & Maria
- Horbaniuc Alexandru (1881-1915) son of  Pavel & Ana

- Hostiuc Mihai (6 sept 1896-1914-18) son of  Demitrie & Maria
 

- Hreceniuc Alexa (b.1884), son of  Pavel & Ana nee Dumencu, married to  Marfta Irimiciuc
- Hreceniuc Ioan, b.18 mar 1892, son of  George & Marfta
- Hreceniuc Vasile, b.1887, son of  George &  Marfta nee Hladiuc, married to  Maria Sainiuc
- Hreniuc Dumitru, b.5 sept 1886, son of  Pavel & Ana Brus,
- Hreniuc Teodosie, b.28 apr 1886, son of  Ilie & Safta, married to  Marfta
- Iablonschi Mihai, b.9 sep 1879, son of  Simeon & Maria, married to  Marfta nee Hostiuc
- Moscaliuc Nicolai (b.1881) son of  George Moscaliuc
- Pitileac Dumitru, b.1875, son of  Ioan & Eudochia, married to  Maria Sainiuc
- Policiuc Leonti (b.1896), son of  Ilie & Domnica nee  Bodnariuc
- Senciuc Constantin, b.18 oct 1880, son of  George Senciuc
- Senciuc Pavel (1 May 1877-1914-18) son of  George & Domnica, married to  Maria Iatco
- Senciuc Vasile, b.17 Dec 1883, son of Teodor &  Ileana nee  Antoneac, married to  Maria Guliciuc
- Serediuc Vasile (1 jan 1889- 1916-18) son of  Constantin & Ana nee  Hladiuc

 

 

Second World War - Soldiers from Ipotesti

 
 
Emilian Hladiuc, Lieutenant

Trifon Hladiuc, medical officer, Capitain (photo 1938 with his wife Lili)

George Hostiuc, telecica
 

 


Hreniuc Stefan Sculi,
(1922-2002)

Hreniuc Stefan & Vasile Sculi (1902-1962) sergent

Soldiers Hreniuc Vasile Sculi & Hreceniuc Gheorghe Farion. On the midle Stefan Hreniuc

Brevet-Distinguished service award, Stefan Hreniuc

Hreniuc Stefan
The Commemorative Cross & distinctions

 

The veterans of the 2nd World War were recognized for their service only after the end of the communist dictatorship

 


Sainiuc Emilian

Tofan Gheorghe

Senciuc Traian (1917-1949) Simferopol Crimea 1941

Senciuc Traian

 


Sergent Sârghi Constantin (1910-2007), photo in 1930

Distinguished service award - Sârghi Constantin

War reporter Radian Eugen - Article about Sârghi Constantin. Page 1

Page 2

Sârghi Constantin, Distinguished service award

 


Sârghi Constantin 2004

Hladiuc Gheorghe

Crasi Dionizie

Hladiuc Traian (1917-1994) in bottom on the right

 


Bucaciuc Aurel (1920-1996) (Bucataru)

Iulian Bucaciuc, Borza Dionizie & Crasi Dionizie

Pamfir Crasii on the right
 

 


Ilie Hreceniuc Hagiu

Horbaniuc Laurentiu
1913-1985

 


Guliciuc Ioan Dubala
1922-1986

Crasi Dumitru, clisi
         

 

 


Germans in Ipotesti

 


German ceremony

 


 

 


Iasi- post card sent by Vasile Hladiuc in 1940

Post card, Iasi - verso

Victims of the war


George Horbaniuc
1920-1944

Dragos Bucaciuc, son of Yohan
1915-1944


Chibici Nicolai (Leasico), son of Mihail
1922-1944


Sainiuc Emilian (paca) 1911-194?, died in a prisoier's camp in USSR

Stefan Dumencu
1913-1945


 

Regus Emilian, bagânda
1918-1944

Hreniuc Ilie (torcoci)
1899-1944

Serediuc Teodor, bubleai
1914-1944


Iremiciuc Ion,  Pavel's son
1907-1943-45


Stefan Hostiuc, son of Dumitru Telecica
1908 -24 jan 1946

 
  Fell on the front:

- Bucaciuc Dragos 1915-1944
- Chibici Nicolai, leasico, 1922-1944

- Demitrie Sîrghii vel Ghivnici, son of Ioan and Elisaveta Condrovici 1913-1943 (Hamur)
- Ioan Sainiuc, Paca, 1920-1943-45
- George Horbaniuc (Brehun) son of Elena and Grigori (1920-1944)
- Ioan Sainiuc, Paca, 1920-1943-45
- Regus Stefan, 1910-1944
-Regus George zazulia
-
Iremiciuc Ion,  Pavel's son 1907- 1943-45 (hambitia)
- Cibereac Nicolai (1901-1943-45) Hacuci

Missing on the front:

Regus George (zazulia)
Regus Emilian (bagânda)
Moscaliuc Vasile born in 1908
Serediuc Petru
Bucaciuc Stefan, son of Ioan, Ghivegalo, born in 1910
 
  Died in a prisoniers's camp in  USSR:

-  Ilie Hreniuc son of   Ioan & Vesilena Sainiuc 1899-1944 (Torcoci), married to Marghioala Gulei.
- Emilian Dumencu (1918-1944) son of Nicolai and Marfta nee Hreniuc.(Poliac)
- Stefan Dumencu 1913-1945

- Bucaciuc Ioan son of Nicolai scaradnei, born in 1907. D- june 2, 1946, Ural USSR

- Hostiuc Stefan son of Dumitru telecica, born in 1908, D.at  24 Jan. 1946 in URSS camp nr. 7531

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

updated 18-aoűt-2014

 

Copyright © 2006-2014 Maritza Hreniuc. All Rights Reserved.